Recently, I got a chance to speak on behalf of the Education Coordinator in the South Dublin Chamber's B2B meeting. I picked up the topic "How Google Works", this topic itself probably has been explained in detail by lots and lots of internet gurus around the world and a lot of web development companies work by keeping the functioning of Google in mind but I wanted to cover this for all of my friends in the group who would like to understand why my website is not getting to the top of the search engines or why my website doesn't come up on Google at all. And I made sure that it was in plain English. So for my other expert readers if you are expecting this to be a technical article… I am sorry to disappoint you.
Google has small applications which are called Googlebots (Google-Robots); these google bots crawl the world wide web and read all the websites which come in their way. Jumping from one website to another website using the links available on each website. They read the content of the website and pass on the keywords (search terms) to Google's index servers.
Index servers keep index of each search term and its location on the world wide web (the URL or address of the web page).
Next time when a user comes to the web server and enters the search term, the web server checks the index server and displays the relevant entries to the user with the URL's on the page.
Googlebots reads only text and keywords embedded on the website it is unable to read the images and text on the images but it can read the alt text for the images. It skips stop words like on, is, am, are etc.
I hope this was helpful in understanding briefly on how Google works. I can dive deeper and explain you all about meta tags, meta keywords, meta description etc.